Grandeza Física

Símbolo

Fator de Conversão

Aceleração

 a

1 m/s2 = 3,281 ft/s2

1 ft/s2 = 0,3048 m/s2

1 g = 9,80665 m/s2 = 32,17405 ft/s2

Área

A

1 m2 = 1550 in2 = 10,764 ft2 = 1,196 yd2 = 3,861x10-7 mile2

1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2 = 144 in2 = 0,1111 yd2 = 3,587x10-8 mile2  

1 in2 = 6,452 cm2 = 6,452x10-4 m2 = 6,944x10-3 ft2 = 7,716x10-4 yd2 = 2,491x10-10 mile2  

1 yd2 = 0.8361 m2 = 1296 in2 = 9 ft2 = 0,3228x10-6 mile2 

1 mile2 = 2,590x106 m2 = 0,4015x1010 in2 = 2,788x107 ft2 = 3,098x106 yd2 

1 acre = 1/640 mile2 = 0,404686 ha = 4046,86 m2

1 km2 = 102 ha2 = 106 m2 = 1010 cm2 = 1012 mm2

1 ha2 = 104 m2 = 108 cm2 = 1010 mm2

1 cm2 = 10-4 m2 = 0.155 in2

1 mm2 = 1.55x10-3in2

Peso Específico

g

1 lb/ft3 = 16.018 kg/m3

1 slug/ft3 = 515.379 kg/m3

1 kg/l = 62.43 lb/ft3

1 kg/m3 = 0.0624 lb/ft3

Energia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q

ou

W

British Thermal Unit (Btu), Calories, Joules, KiloJoules,  

1 J (Joule) = 0,1020 kpm = 2,778x10-7 kWh = 2,389x10-4 kcal = 0,7376 ft lbf = 1 (kg m2)/s2 = 1 watt second = 1 Nm = 1 ft lb = 9,478x10-4 Btu

1 kpm = 9,80665 J =  2,724x10-6 kWh = 2,342x10-3 kcal = 7,233 ft lbf =  9,295x10-3 Btu

1 kWh = 3,6x106 J = 3,671x105 kpm = 859,9 kcal = 2,656x106 ft lbf =  3412x10-3 Btu

1 kJ = 1 kNm = 1kWs = 103 J = 0.947813 Btu = 0.23884 kcal

1 Btu (British thermal unit) = 1055.06 J = 107,6 kpm = 2,931x10-4 kWh = 0,252 kcal = 778.16 ft lbf = 1.055x1010 ergs = 252 cal = 0.293 watt hour

1 cal = 4.186 J

1 kcal  = 4186,8 J = 426,9 kp m = 1,163x10-3 kWh = 3,088 ft lbf  = 3,9683 Btu  = 1000 cal

1 ft lbf (foot pound force) = 1,3558 J = 0,1383 kp m = 3,766x10-7 kWh = 3,238x10-4 kcal = 1,285x10-3 Btu

1 hp h (horse power hour) = 2,6846x106 J = 0,7457 kWh

1 erg = 1 (g cm2)/s2 = 10-7 J

1 eV = 1.602x10-19 J

1 Q = 1018 Btu = 1.055x1021 J

1 Quad = 1015 Btu

1 kg m = 7.233 ft lb = 0.00929 Btu = 9.806 Joule

Energia por unidade de massa

 

1 kJ/kg = 0.4299 Btu/ lbm = 0.23884 kcal/kg

Força

 

 

 

 

 

F

 

1 N (Newton) = 0,1020 kp = 0,2248 lbf = 7,232 pdl = 1 (kg m)/s2

1 lbf (Pound force) = 4.44822 N = 0,4536 kp = 32,17 pdl = 4.448x105 dyn

1 dyn = 1 (g cm)/s2

1 kg has a weight of 1 kp

1 kp (Kilopond)  = 9.80665 N = 2,205 lbf = 70,93 pdl

1 pdl (Poundal) = 0,13826 N = 0,01409 kp = 0,03108 lbf

Taxa de fluxo de calor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

q

1 Btu/sec = 1055.1 W

1 kW (kJ/s) = 102,0 kpm/s = 859,9 kcal/h = 3413 Btu/h = 1,360 hk = 1,341 hp = 738 ft lb/s = 1000 J/s = 3,6x106 J/h 

1 kpm/s = 9,8067x10-3 kW =  8,432 kcal/h = 32,47 Btu/h = 0,01333 hk = 0,01316 hp = 7,237 ft lb/s

1 kcal/h = 1,163x10-3 kW = 0,1186 kpm/s =   3,969 Btu/h = 1,582x10-3 hk = 1,560x10-3 hp = 0,8583 ft lb/s

1 Btu/h = 2,931x10-4 kW = 0,0299 kpm/s = 0,252 kcal/h = 3,986x10-4 hk = 3,939x10-4 hp = 0,2163 ft lb/s

1 kcal/h = 1,16x10-3 kW

1 hk (metric horse power)  = 0,735499 kW = 75,00 kpm/s = 632,5 kcal/h =  2510 Btu/h = 0,9863 hp = 542,8 ft lb/s

1 hp  = 0,74570 kW = 76,04 kpm/s = 641,2 kcal/h =   2545 Btu/h = 1,014 hk = 550,3 ft lb/s

1 ft lb/s = 1,35501 kW = 0,1382 kpm/s = 1,165 kcal/h = 4,625 Btu/h = 1,843x10-3 hk = 1,817x10-3 hp

Fluxo de calor

q’’

1 Btu/ft2 = 2.713 kcal/m2 = 2.043x104 J/m2K

1 Btu/ ft2 h = 3.1525 W/m2

1 Btu/ft2 oF = 4.88 kcal/m2K = 2.043x104 J/m2K

1 kcal/m2 = 0.369 Btu/ft2

1 kcal/m2K = 0.205 Btu/ft2oF

Geração de calor por unidade de volume

 

 

q’’’G

1 Btu/ft3 = 8.9 kcal/m3 = 3.73x104 J/m3

1 Btu/ft3 h = 10.343 W/m3

1 kcal/m3 = 0.112 Btu/ft3

Geração de calor por unidade de massa

 

 

1 Btu/lb = 0.556 kcal/kg = 2326 J/kg

1 kcal/kg = 1.800 Btu/lb

Coeficiente de transmissão de calor

 

 

hc

1 Btu/ft2 h oF  = 5.678 W/m2 K = 4,882 kcal/h m2 oC

1 W/m2K = 0.85984 kcal/h m2 oC = 0.1761 Btu/ ft2 h oF

1 kcal/h m2 oC = 1,163  W/m2K =  0,205 Btu/ ft2 h oF

Comprimento

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

L

Pés(ft), Metros(m), Centímetros (cm), Kilometro (km), Milhas(mile)es, Furlongs, Jardas (yd), MicroMetros(mm), polegadas (In), 

1 m (meter) = 3.2808 ft = 39.37 in = 1.0936 yd = 6.214x10-4 mile

1 km = 0.621 mile

1 in (inch) = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm = 0.0254 m = 0.08333 ft = 0,02778 yd = 1.578x10-5 mile

1 ft (foot) = 0.3048 m = 12 in = 0,3333 yd = 1,894x10-4 mile

1 mm = 10-3 m

1 cm = 10-2 m = 0.394 in = 0.0328 ft

1 mm = 0.03937 in

1 Å (Ångstøm) = 10-10 m

1 mile = 1.6093 km = 1609.3 m = 63346 in = 5280 ft = 1760 yd

1 yd (yard) = 0.9144 m = 36 in = 3 ft = 5,682x10-4 mile

Massa, Peso

 

 

m

1 kg = 1000 g = 2.2046 lb = 6.8521x10-2 slug

1 lb = 0.4536 kg = 453.6 g = 7000 grains = 0,03108 slug

1 slug = 14.594 kg  = 32.174 lbm

1 grain = 0.000143 lb = 0.0648 g

1 g = 15.43 grains = 0.0353 oz = 0.002205 lb

1 tonne = 103 kg = 106 g = 109 mg = 0.984 tons

1 oz = 28,35 g

Vazão Mássica

 

 

 

 

m’

1 lb/h = 1,26x10-4 kg/s

1 lb/s = 0,4536 kg/s

1 lb/min = 7,56x10-3 kg/s = 27,216 kg/s

1 kg/s = 3600 kg/h = 132,28 lb/min

1 kg/h = 2,778x10-4 kg/s = 3,67x10-2 lb/min

Potência

  

 

 

W’

Horsepower, Kilowatt, Watt, 

1 W = 1 kg m2/s3 = 1 Nm/s = 1 J/s

1 kW = 1000 W = 3412 Btu/h

1 hp (English horse power) = 745.7 W = 550 ft lb/s = 2545 Btu/h = 33.000 ft lb/m = 1.0139 metric horse power

1 metric horse power = 736 W = 75 kg m/s = 0.986 English horse power

1 ft lb/s = 1.3558 W

1 Btu/s = 1055.1 W

1 Btu/h = 0.293 W

Potência por unidade de área

 

1 W/m2 = 0.3170 Btu/(h ft2) = 0.85984 kcal/(h m2)

Pressão

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P

Atmosferas, Centimetros de Mercurio, Pés de Água, 

1 N/m2 = 1 Pa  = 1.4504x10-4 lb/in2 = 1x10-5 bar = 4.03x10-3 in water = 0.336x10-3 ft water = 0.1024 mm water = 0.295x10-3 in mercury = 7.55x10-3 mm mercury = 0.1024 kg/m2 = 0.993x10-5 atm

1 Pa = 10-6 N/mm2 = 10-5 bar = 0,1020 kp/m2 = 1,02x10-4 m H2O = 9,869x10-6 atm = 1,45x10-4 psi (lbf/in2)

1 N/mm2 = 106 Pa = 10 bar = 1,020x105 kp/m2 = 102,0 m H2O = 9,869 atm = 145,0 psi (lbf/in2)

1 mmHg = 1 torr = 0.01934 lb/in2

1 atm = 101325 Pa (N/m2) = 1.013x102 kN/m2 =  1.033x104 kp/m2 = 1.033 kp/cm2 = 1.013 bar = 14.696 psi (lb/in2) = 407.1 in H2O at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 10.33 m H2O at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 30 in mercury at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 760 mm mercury at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 760 torr

1 bar =  105 Pa (N/m2) = 0,1 N/mm2 = 10197 kp/m2 = 10,20 m H2O = 0,9869 atm = 14,50 psi (lbf/in2) = 106 dyn/cm2

1 kp/m2 = 9.81 Pa (N/m2) = 9,807x10-6 N/mm2 = 10-3 m H2O = 1 mm H2O = 0.9681x10-4 atm = 1.422x10-3 psi (lb/in2)  = 0.0394 in H2O = 0.0736 mm mercury

1 psi (lb/in2) =  6894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6,895x10-3 N/mm2 = 6.895x10-2 bar = 27.71 in H2O at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 703.1 mm H2O at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 2.0416 in mercury at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 51.8 mm mercury at 62 0F (16.7 0C) = 703.6 kg/m2 = 0.06895 atm

1 lb/ft2 = 47.88 N/m2

1 dyn/cm2 = 145.04x10-7 lbf/in2

1 in mercury (Hg) = 3376.8 N/m2= 0.49 lb/in2 = 12.8 in water

1 in water  = 248.8 N/m2= 0.0361 lb/in2 = 25.4 kg/m2 = 0.0739 in mercury

1 m H2O = 9806,7 Pa = 9,807x10-3 N/mm2  = 0,0987 bar = 1000 kp/m2 =  0,09678 atm = 1,422 psi (lbf/in2)

1 mm water = 9.81 Pa (N/m2) = 1 kg/m2 = 0.0736 mm mercury = 0.9677x10-4 atm

1 mm mercury = 0.0193 lb/in2 = 133 N/m2 = 12.8 mm water

Rotação (rpm)

 

 

 

N

revolução

1 r/min = 0,01667 r/s = 0,105 rad/s

1 r/s = 60 r/min = 6,28 rad/s

1 rad/s = 9,55 r/min = 0,159 r/s

 Energia Específica

 

 

Q/m

1 Btu/lbm = 2326.1 J/kg = 0,55556 kcal/kg

1 J/kg = 0,43 Btu/lbm =  2,39x10-4 kcal/kg

1 kcal/kg = 1,80 Btu/lbm = 4187 J/kg

Calor específico

 

 

c

1 J/(kg K) = 2,389x10-4 kcal/(kg oC) = 2,389x10-4 Btu/(lbm oF)

1 Btu/(lbm oF) = 4186,8 J/ (kg K) = 1 kcal/(kg oC)

1 kcal/(kg oC) = 4186,8 J/ (kg K)  = 1 Btu/(lbm oF)

Temperatura

T

Centigrade, Fahrenheit, 

1 oC = 1.8 oF

1 oF = 0.555 oC

0 oC corresponds to 32 oF, 273.16 K and 491.69 R

T(oR) = (9/5)T(K)

T(oF) = [T(oC)](9/5) + 32

T(oF) = [T(K) - 273.15](9/5) + 32

T(oC) = 5/9[T(oF) - 32]

Condutividade Térmica

k

1 W/(m K) = 0,85984 kcal/(h m oC) = 0,5779 Btu/(ft h oF)

1 Btu/(ft h oF) = 1,731 W/(m K) = 1,488 kcal/(h m oC)

1 kcal/(h m oC) = 1,163 W/(m K) =  0,6720 Btu/(ft h oF)

Difusividade térmica

a

 1 ft2 /s = 0.0929 m2/s

1 ft2 /h = 2.581x10-5 m2/s

Resistência Térmica

Rt

 1 (h oF)/Btu = 1.8958 K/W

 Tempo

t

1 h = 3600 s = 60 min

1 ms = 10-3 s

1 ms = 10-6 s

1 ns = 10-9 s

Velocidade

V

Knots, 

1 ft/s = 0.3048 m/s

1 ft/min = 5,08x10-3 m/s = 0,0183 km/h = 0,0114 mph

1 mph = 0.44703 m/s = 1.609 km/h = 88 ft/min

1 m/s = 3.6 km/h = 196.85 ft/min = 2,237 mph

1 km/h = 0,2778 m/s = 54,68 ft/min = 0,6214 mph

Viscosidade Dinâmica

m

1 lb/(ft s) = 1.4879 Pa s = 14,88 P = 1488 cP = 0,1517 kp s/m2

1 cP (Centipoise) = 10-3 Pa s = 0,01 P = 1,020x10-4 kp s/m2 = 6,721x10-4 lb/(ft s) = 0.00100 (N s)/m2

1 kg/(m s ) = 1 (N s)/m2 = 0.6720 lbm/(ft s) = 10 Poise

1 P (Poise) = 0,1 Pa s = 100 cP = 1,020x10-2 kp s/m2 = 6,721x10-2 lb/(ft s) = 0.1 kg/ms

1 Pa s (N s/m2) = 10 P (Poise) = 103 cP  = 0,1020 kp s/m2 = 0,6721 lb/(ft s)

1 kp s/m2 = 9,80665 Pa s = 98,07 P = 9807 cP = 6,591 lb/(ft s)

Viscosidade cinemática

v

1 ft2/s = 0.0929 m2/s

1 ft2/ h = 2.581x10-5m2/s

1 St (Stokes) = 1x10-4 m2/s = 100 cSt = 1,076x10-3 ft2/s

1 m2/s = 104 St = 106 cSt = 10,764 ft2/s  

1 cSt (Centistokes) = 10-6 m2/s = 0,01 St = 1,076x10-5 ft2/s 

Volume

V

Barrils, Gallões, Centímetros Cúbicos, Pés Cúbicos, Polegadas Cubicas, Metros Cúbicos, Jardas Cúbicas, Quarts, Litros,  

1 ft3 = 0.02832 m3= 28,32 dm3 = 0,03704 yd3 = 6.229 Imp. gal (UK) = 7,481 gal (US)

1 in3 = 1.6387x10-5 m3 = 1,639x10-2 dm3 (litre) = 16.39 cm3 = 16390 mm3   

1 gal (U.S.) = 3,785x10-3 m3 = 3.785 dm3 (litre) = 0.13368 ft3 = 4,951x10-3 yd3 = 0.8327 Imp. gal (UK)

1 Imp. gal (UK) = 4.546x10-3 m3 = 4.546 dm3 = 0.1605 ft3 = 5,946x10-3 yd3 = 1,201 gal (US)

1 dm3 (liter) = 10-3 m3 = 0,03532 ft3 = 1,308x10-3 yd3 = 0.220 Imp gal (UK) = 0,2642 gal (US)

1 yd3 = 0.7646 m3 = 764,6 dm3 = 27 ft3 = 168,2 Imp. gal (UK) = 202,0 gal (US)

1 pint = 0.568 dm3 (litre)

1 km3 = 109 m3 = 1012 dm3 (litre) = 1015 cm3 = 1018 mm3

1 cm3 = 0.061 in3

1 m3 = 103 dm3 (litre) = 35.31 ft3 = 1.308 yd3 = 220.0 Imp. gal (UK) = 264,2 gal (US)

Vazão Volumétrica

Q

1 kg/s (water) = 13.20 Imp. gal (UK)/min

1 m3/s = 3600 m3/h = 1000 dm3(litre)/s = 35,32 ft3/s = 2118.9 ft3/min = 13200 Imp.gal (UK)/min = 15852 gal (US)/min

1 m3/h = 2,7778x10-4 m3/s = 0,2778 dm3(litre)/s = 9,810x10-3 ft3/s = 0,5886 ft3/min = 3,667 Imp.gal (UK)/min = 4,403 gal (US)/min

1 m3/h = 103 dm3(litre)/h = 16,67 dm3(litre)/min = 0,27878 dm3(litre)/s

1 ft3/min = 1.7 m3/h = 0.47 l/s

1 dm3(litre)/s = 10-3 m3/s = 3,6 m3/h = 0,03532 ft3/s = 2,1189 ft3/min = 13,200 Imp.gal (UK)/min = 15,852 gal (US)/min = 792 Imp. gal (UK)/h

1 dm3(litre)/s = 60 litre/min = 3600 litre/h

1 ft3/s = 0,0283168 m3/s = 101,9 m3/h  = 28,32 dm3(litre)/s =  60 ft3/min = 373,7 Imp.gal (UK)/min = 448,9 gal (US)/min

1 Imp.gal (UK)/min = 7,57682x10-5 m3/s = 0,0273 m3/h = 0,0758 dm3(litre)/s = 2,675x10-3 ft3/s = 0,1605 ft3/min = 1,201 gal (US)/min

1 gal (US)/min =6,30888x10-5 m3/s = 0,0227 m3/h = 0,0631 dm3(litre)/s = 2,228x10-3 ft3/s = 0,1337 ft3/min = 0,8327 Imp.gal (UK)/min